Inhalt Nr. 41

Editorial
Electronic Literature Communities, Part I

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Distributed Authorship and Creative Communities

This essay is an investigation into creativity as a driving force for emergent communities and discusses the use of various ethnographic methodologies to gather information on the interpretation and performativity of 'creativity' by electronic literature practitioners within a transnational and multicultural context. As the ELMCIP partners responsible for the ethnographic study of networked creative communities, Biggs and Travlou present their research in progress. It builds on James Leach's Creative Land and proposes to adapt multi-sited global ethnography (Marcus; Burawoy, Hendry) and cyber-ethnography (Ward; Hine; Carter) to the purpose of the ethnographic study of three selected networked creative communities: Furtherfield, Art is Open Source, and Make-Shift.  Weiterlesen ...

Digital Literature in France

In this paper, I first retrace the filiations and the history of digital literature in France, emphasizing the various literary and aesthetic tendencies and the corresponding structures (groups, reviews). Then I focus on French digital literature communities. I notably give an account of a study that I did in 2004-2007 for the Centre Pompidou in Paris: I analyzed a socio-technical device (discussion list and website) called e-critures, dedicated to digital literature, with the hypothesis of the co-construction of a socio-technical device, a field and a community. I conclude on the possible characteristics of digital literature in France.  Weiterlesen ...

From OULIPO to Transitoire Observable The Evolution of French Digital Poetry

The paper presents the evolution of French digital poetry. Each digital culture is based on a founding general paradigm, non-digital by itself, that orients perception and creation of works. In France, this paradigm is generation. It is greatly relativized today, due to cultural exchanges, networks and a certain degree of cultural globalization, but it remains a pertinent paradigm to understand most of French actual digital poetry.  Weiterlesen ...

Developing an Identity for the Field of Electronic Literature Reflections on the Electronic Literature Organization Archives

The Electronic Literature Organization (ELO) was founded as a literary nonprofit organization in 1999 after the Technology Platforms for 21st Century Literature conference at Brown University. Along with Jeff Ballowe and Robert Coover, I was a co-founder of the ELO, and served as its first Executive Director from 1999-2001, and have served on its board of directors in the years since then. Today it is one of the most active organizations in the field of electronic literature, central to the practice of e-lit in the United States and its establishment as an academic discipline. This essay briefly outlines the early history of the organization, the ways that the mission, profile, and the focus of the organization evolved and changed in its first decade, and offers some tentative insights into the ways that an institutionally structured community can facilitate network-mediated art practice.  Weiterlesen ...

Electronic Literature Seen from a Distance
The Beginnings of a Field

This paper outlines the development of the hypertext fiction community that developed in the United States of America from the late eighties and onwards. This community was separate from the interactive fiction community (and largely thought of its works as different from “games”) and largely revolved around the use of Storyspace, a software tool for creating electronic literature, and later, around Eastgate, a publisher of hypertext fiction and the company that developed Storyspace. While some work was written and published in Hypercard and other systems, the technology of a dominant software authoring tool and of the mechanics of distribution (diskettes sold by mail order) formed the hub of the electronic literature community during this period.  Weiterlesen ...

Shyness, Cushions, and Food
Case Studies in American Creative Communities

In this paper I look at some often-overlooked aspects of creative collaboration, drawing on my experiences in a series of group projects in which I participated over a span of almost 30 years. The infrastructural and interpersonal details of creative collaboration—the architectural space and seating arrangements, food and drink, public and private meeting spaces, meeting management, social conventions—I argue to be important factors in the quantity and quality of the work produced. These elements are often excluded from certain types of scholarly discourse and I make a parallel argument for the importance of their inclusion in literary history and criticism.  Weiterlesen ...

A Short History of Electronic Literature and Communities in the Nordic Countries

This article gives a survey of the tradition of electronic literature in the Nordic countries, focusing both on the literature and communities emerging in the field within the last two decades.  Weiterlesen ...

Interactive Fiction Communities
From Preservation through Promotion and Beyond

The interactive fiction (IF) community has for decades been involved with the authorship, sharing, reading, and discussion of one type of electronic literature and computer game. Creating interactive fiction is a game-making and world-building activity, one that involves programming as well as writing. Playing interactive fiction typically involves typing input and receiving a textual response explaining the current situation. From the first canonical interactive fiction, the minicomputer game Adventure, the form has lived through a very successful commercial phase and is now being actively developed by individuals, worldwide, who usually share their work for free online.  Weiterlesen ...

The Flash Community
Implications for Post-Conceptualism

Complimenting a broader international research paradigm shift, Electronic Literature scholars and practitioners alike have expressed a desire to expand the field to include deep collaborations with other disciplines. In achieving such a goal any original indigenous ideologies and aesthetics may be challenged. This dialectical tension between striving to be niche/identifiable/original in a mixed discipline economy faced with contemporary descriptors of ‘human experience’ such as Baumanr’s Liquid Modernity (2000), Antonelli’s Elasticity (2008) or even Turkle’s "life mix" (2011) remains key to facing this challenge.  Weiterlesen ...

Sc4nd1 in New Media

Moulthrop unveils a scandal he observes in the community of electronic literature. In his "post-serious" scholarly "arcade essay", he raises and discusses the pertaining questions virulent in the community itself, all of which center around the cultural status of electronic literature in relation to other practices. Once Moulthrop notices that, "as a whole, electronic writing raises more questions than it answers." As we pong our way through the discourse of these historical scandals in new media, we might find ourselves encountering a new kind of criticism, "an argument that is as much in new media—or the domain of the Universal Turing Machine—as it may be from anywhere else."  Weiterlesen ...